University of Edinburgh
Wide Wave Tank 1977 - 2001
1977: the wide tank goes up
2001: the wide tank comes down
The wide tank was housed in a temporary building that was attached to
the James Clerk Maxwell Building (JCMB),
at the Kings Buildings campus of the University of Edinburgh.
The tank was built in 1977 by Edinburgh Wave Power Project for research
at scales between 1/150 and 1/100 into the generation of electricity from
ocean wave energy. It was designed to accurately represent Atlantic wave
activity in areas of up to 3km full scale width.
The tank consisted of a light blue 1200gm/m2 glass reinforced polyester lining inside modular concrete retaining walls. The nominal water depth was 1.2 metres, the internal length was 10 metres and the width was 27.5 metres. 'Width' referred to the dimension parallel to the wavemakers - hence the name 'wide tank'. The original waterproofing consisted of a loose lining made up from rolls of a polyurethane material which had a bonded-on terylene felt backing.
Along one width of the tank were 89 wavemaking paddles, of which approximately the first 75 were usually driven. (See 'wavemaker platform limit' line on the drawing). Along the opposite side were 2 metre long beach cages using expanded aluminium foil as an energy absorbtion medium. (See 'beach limit' line on the drawing). The upper part of most of one short side of the tank was glazed to provide an underwater view. The opposite short wall of the tank usually had a row of beaches along it.
The working area was up to 25m wide by 5m long. The wavemaking paddle pitch
was 305mm (12 inches).
A gusseted plastic membrane formed a water seal between the paddles and the
tank. Water was displaced only by the moving front surface of the paddles. There
were no rear waves to cause resonances and compromise wave quality. The paddles
were driven by DC motors with force and velocity feedback to linearize response
and maximize absorbtion of reflected waves arriving back at the paddles.
Wave fronts & Seastates
Tank sea states were created as single wavefronts or as combinations of finite numbers of wavefronts.
Wavefronts were specified by: frequency, period or wavelength (eg: 1Hz)
amplitude or height (eg: 1cm)
angle of travel (eg: -30°)
Single wavefront sea states provided regular, monochromatic or 2-dimensional waves. Additional wavefronts gave 2 and 3-dimensional sea states with specified spectral content.
Wavefront frequencies were generally in the range 0.5 to 2Hz. Angles could
be up to ±90°, although at extreme angles wavefronts tended not to
propagate into the tank working area.
An example of an unusual seastate...
The 'bullseye' wave (shown here on the glass window of the wide tank) was composed
of many wavefronts, each having the same period (0.8 seconds), but different
angles. The starting phases were chosen to bring each wavefront
into phase at the same point on the glass.
The wavemaking software of 1977 had to run in real time as memory was very expensive. (Our best computer had 64 kB of RAM and a 20MB hard disk drive cost more than a year's salary). The Plessey Miproc was the fastest micro-computer that we could afford and it allowed us to generate up to 70 wavefront seas. By the 1990's we were using the software from our spin-out company Edinburgh Designs Ltd and there was no practical limit to the number of wavefronts in a sea state, however typically less than 1000 were used.
Collections of sea states were defined by writing text files in a special compiling
syntax not unlike C or Pascal. Standard ocean spectral algorithms
such as Pierson-Moscowitz and Jonswap were included as high level functions,
and wave directionality was usually specified with a Cos2n function.
Wavefront starting phase was normally assigned randomly by the wavemaking compiler.
However explicit manipulation of starting phase allowed statistically uncommon
wave features (eg: 50 year wave) to be forced into sea states at specific times
and places. Thus the following line of text :
makewave focus (cosn(pm(1.0)*3,5),20,4,4)
specifies a 1 second Pierson-Moscowitz sea, with cos5 spreading and includes a freak wave 20 seconds after sequence start at tank coordinate 4,4.
This technique also allowed easy implimentation of scarcely imaginable real
world sea states such as repetitive deep water plunging breakers.
All sea states were pseudo random with their repeat times specified
in the corresponding source files. A commonly used repeat times was 64 seconds,
but this coul be extended indefinitely. All the features of complex sea states
repeat with great precision which for most experimental work was greatly advantageous.
During wavemaking a pseudo wave-gauge facility in the control computer
could provide calculated surface elevation time-series for any point in the
The Widetank Plan View: