Historic Computer Documentation

The Manchester Mark I

  1. Programmers' handbook for Manchester electronic computer mark II; Alan Turing, 1951, typescript.
    This describes Turing's proposed `high level' language (which apparently no one else could understand!) for the Mark I. He refers to it as the Mark II and its predecessor the `Baby' as the mark I.
Kindly provided by Dr Tony Gibbons.

Ferranti Mercury Computer

  1. Programmers' Handbook; CS225A, 1960.
    Basic instruction set and machine documentation.
  2. Programmers' Manual; CS158, 1957
    Earlier version of 1.
  3. Introduction to the Mercury Autocode; CS241, 1959
    16 page summary with examples.
  4. Mercury Autocode Manual, Brooker et al; CS242A, 1961
    The full manual.
  5. Annotated Input Routine; CS240, 1959
    What we would now call the operating system. Complete listing.
  6. Mercury Library Listings; A Gibbons and other, c. 1961
    Listings of the run-time libraries.
These were most kindly provided by Dr Tony Gibbons. I have an additional second copy of (4).

Ferranti Sirius Computer

Sirius was in a sense a developemnt of Pegasus but apparently intended as a `commercial' rather than a scientific computer. I believe it used BCD rather than binary representation. However, it used the same autocode as Pegasus, itself essentially the same as Brooker developed for the Mark I in the early 1950s after Turing had left the group.
  1. Ferranti Sirius Computer, Description of the Autocode; CS302, 1961. With inserted typescript sheet: `The Monitor Routine'
  2. Ferranti Sirius Computer, Extension of the Autocode; CS334A, 1963
Given to me by the late Dr David Falconer.

Manchester/Ferranti Atlas

  1. The Atlas provisional programming manual; CS348, 1963
    Description of the basic instuction set. From The late D Falconer.
  2. The Atlas Autocode Reference manual; Brooker et al, 1965. From A Gibbons.
  3. Atlas Autocode Programming manual; Brooker et al, 1963.
    Also contains a description of list processing and half word operations used in writing the compiler and compiler-compiler.

English Electric KDF 9

  1. KDF 9 programming manual; EE-LC publication 1003mm 1001263.
    Original manual, A5 format. I also have a scanned copy of this. From A Gibbons.
  2. KDF 9 programming manual; EE-LC publication 1002mm(R) 1000168.
    Enlarged (A4) photocopy. Updated and extended version of above. Original from Dr David Rees. A later These describe the basic machine structure and User Code.
  3. K Autocode Reference manual; ICI publication MCD/66/99. Written by A Gibbons.
    K autocode was an extended Mercury autocode written for the KDF 9. It was developed by Gibbons at ICI but used elsewhere.
  4. K Autocode compiler listing; by A Gibbons.
    Printout of source code (KDF 9 usercode) of the compiler.
  5. K Autocode on System 360; A Gibbons.
    A5 format. K autocode was moved to a number of other platforms including the IBM 360 and Atlas/Titan.
Most of the above kindly provided by A Gibbons, who after leaving ICI worked for ERCC (subsequentlu EUCS).


The following were all published by Digital Equipment Corporation.
  1. Small computer handbook, 1971
  2. OS/8 handbook, 1974
  3. Introduction to programming 3rd ed 1972
  4. Programming languages 2nd ed 1972
  5. Digital logic handbook, 1971
  6. Introduction to data communications, 1968
Also of interest are a 1972 PDP 8 pricelist and a 1970 quotation for a PDP 8 system.